Left: Barge on Aquaduct crossing the Barrow – Top right: Crow Bridge (no longer exists) – Bottom right: Lord Edward’s Own
Monasterevin Re-inactment Group -Below: Civil War
Monasterevin Re-enactment Group – Images courtesy of Monasterevin Heritage & © Ed Mooney Photography

20 BOM web

The Battle of Monasterevin

The arrival of the Moore’s/ Earls of Drogheda marked another important turning point in the history of the town. It was during the Moore’s occupancy that the town started to take shape and grow. The First Earl had laid out the streets at the center of Dublin, Drogheda ( O’Connell) Street Moore Street, Henry Street and Mary Street. His descendants continued this tradition of town planning by laying out the grid-pattern of the town with the parallel Main Street and Drogheda Street. As I mentioned earlier, Monasterevin has an unusual number of Bridges for a town of its size, hence the nick-name ‘Venice of Ireland’. The arrival of the Grand Canal in 1786 only enhances the claim to this name. Originally the spur connecting the main line the Barrow in Athy was carried down the bank by locks in to Barrow and up the other side. The arrival of the Grand Canal gave rise to a local distillery and allowed it to flourish. The big players in this industry were the Cassidy family who’s whiskey and St. Patrick Cross Pale Ale was world famous. They remains of these two industrial premises can still be seen today on the Dublin Road. It is said that the canal was used to transport thousands of barrels of both Whiskey and Ale each year. The wealth acquired by the Cassidy’s Brewing industry gave them a lot of influence in the area. In 1798, one of the Cassidy’s was the local magistrate.In 1798 insurgents from the local clans marched on the town in an attempt to capture it. This became known as the ‘Battle of Monasterevin’ which took place in the Main Street outside St. Johns church. The Churchyard had however been fortified by local Yeoman and a group of Militia. Following a charge by the Yeoman the rebels were sent packing.

Top left: Market square with Fr. Prendergast Monument – Top right: Main Street – Right middle: Old Railway Masters House – Bottom: Train Station – Images courtesy of Monasterevin Heritage

The Great Potato Famine

Later that year, local Priest, Fr. Edward Prendergast was arrested for administering to the wounded rebels at their camp and sentenced to death. He was hanged in the garden of Monasterevin House. Before he could be buried, a group of daring rebels snuck into the town by boat and retrieved the priest corpse, to return it to his hometown of Harristown. There was a Celtic-style cross monument erected in the town square in memory of Father Prendergast. The 19th century marked further improvements including the construction of a new town bridge in 1832 and the arrival of the railway. With the mass scale evictions of tenant farmers during this period and the Holocaust which was called the great famine in the 1840’s, Monasterevin was mostly unaffected and continued to prosper. Designed in 1846 by William Deane Butler, but never completed, St. Peter & St. Paul’s Church began construction. The interiors were completed by William Hague around 1880. The original intention was for twin spires to adorn the main front. Behind the facade, the church is quite simple with a continuous nave and choir and lean-to aisles. One regular visitor to the town was the famous poet Gerard Manley Hopkins. Our housing estate, Hopkins Haven, was named after him.

Left: Early Cassidy Label – Middle: Cassidy Sign showing how the town looked on Dublin Street – Right: Bottle of Cassidy Whiskey – Images courtesy of Monasterevin Heritage

28 coin1-horz

Cassidy Coin
(These were issued to workers brining goods to the distillery and could be used in the local pubs and shops in exchange for goods.)
Image courtesy of Monasterevin Heritage

Ireland’s armed struggle for freedom

By the turn of the 20th century Irish Nationalism was on the rise. In 1900 the a fore mentioned monument to Fr. Prendergast was erected at the top end of Main Street. In 1903 the Gordon Bennet Motor Race took place with Monasterevin hosting one of the stages of this high speed race. Then the arrival of the Great War (World War 1) saw many young men from the town join the British Army, fighting in famous groups such as the Leinster Regiment and the Connaught Rangers. I always saw this as a strange move considering that Germany was a big supporter of Ireland’s armed struggle for freedom. Perhaps many of these young Irish men, many whom perished on the western front, actually believed that by supporting Britain in the war effort, they would somehow gain a free Ireland. During the War of Independence the town suffered the unwanted attention of the Black and Tans, (a force of temporary constables recruited to assist the Royal Irish Constabulary and were notorious for their attacks on civilians and civilian property). Perhaps it was for this reason that the railway lines around the town became prime targets for the IRA.

Left: Monasterevin Emergency Force 1944 Moore Abbey – Top right: Count John McCormack – Bottom right: Baronial Hall, Moore Abbey
Images courtesy of Monasterevin Heritage
Left below: Monasterevin House – Once the home of the Cassidy family, now home to the Presentation Sisters. Right below: The Hulk -
Built in 1734 the Hulk was originally a “Charter School” set up to educate orphaned Protestant children
Images: © Ed Mooney Photography

“The Emergency”

In 1925 the world famous tenor Count John McCormack took up residency at Moore Abbey. It was here that he entertained many famous guests as well as recording his albums in the Baronial Hall, with one of the scenes from his film Song of My Heart being filmed in the grounds. I was lucky enough to shoot a private concert in the gorgeous baronial hall as part of the Venice of Ireland festival a couple of years ago with another famous Irish singer, Luka Bloom providing the entertainment for the evening. With World War 2, which became known as ‘The Emergency’ in Ireland, due to our neutrality status, 45 Monasterevinians prepared to defend itself against any aggressor by raising its own Local Defence Force, preparing its famous bridges for demolition, and building a pillbox to defend the town. The engineering works on the Dublin Road of Samuel E. Holmes produced grenades for the army.

Top left: The Siege of Monasterevin – Top right: Monasterevin under siege – Top right middle: Being questioned by the police – Bottom: Eddie Gallagher Arrested – Image courtesy of Monasterevin Heritage

“Siege at Monasterevin”

By 1975 Monasterevin came into the International News, when on the morning of the 21st of October Gardai surrounded a house in St. Evin’s Park. Of Inside were the kidnappers of Dr. Tiede Herrema the “Siege at Monasterevin” lasted seventeen days ending on the 7th of November with the surrender of the kidnappers and the freedom of Dr. Herrema. And so we reach the end of our journey through the history of the town that was bypassed by the M7 motorway in 2004 and became my family home in 2007. Volumes of books could be written going into details about all that has occurred here over the centuries. It was never my intention for this to be a definitive article on the history of Monasterevin. I wrote this piece in the hope that it gives a broad general view of the history that shaped the town and its people over the years.


“Venice of Ireland’ comes to “Life in Russia” – Part II Left: Barge on Aquaduct crossing the Barrow - Top right: Crow Bridge (no longer exists) - Bottom right: Lord Edward’s Own…

Life in Russia has a very special guest blogger today. He is the Ruin Hunter of Ireland, “Edward Mooney” aka Eddie. I’ve followed his blog Ed Mooney Photography almost as long as I’ve blogged. He is a gifted photographer who not only has a great eye but shares the history behind his photos. He combines this history with Old Ruins, Folklore & Mythology that will intrigue all those who love the mystery and romance of the old castles and ruins of Ireland. He claims that he was a late starter in his photography work but something tells me this talent was always there. Eddie lives in Monasterevin with his wife and three little assistant ruin hunters. His website is here. You can also follow him on Facebook, flickr, and twitter.

1 Monasterevin

Image courtesy of Monasterevin Heritage

“Build a bridge, and get over it”

My Father-in-law is notorious for using a certain phrase when dealing with the various problems that pop up in life and it goes a little something like this, ‘Build a bridge, and get over it’. Well for thousands of years the human race, have done just that. Especially in my hometown of Monasterevin (Mhainistir Eimhín). So much so that Monasterevin has also become known as ‘The Venice of Ireland’ due to the excessive amount of bridges for a town of its size. Back in prehistory the landscape of the area was shaped by glacial activity. The melt water from the retreating ice-sheet formed out-wash plains of gravel to the east and west which became the Curragh in Kildare and the Great Heath in Laois respectively. The land in between the two plains on which Monasterevin is situated consists mostly of limestone which provided a perfect path for the formation of the river Barrow (Baru) and its tributaries the Black and the Figile. Traces of Neolithic man in the area put the first settlements here between 4000-2500BC. The deforestation by these farmers caused the peat bogs to form. A Dolmen which was the only one left in Kildare, (sadly now collapsed), once marked the burial of an important tribal figure in the area. Literally hundreds of stone axe heads were discovered on the riverbed at the three major crossing points within the town.

Images courtesy of Monasterevin Heritage

The spirit of the Barrow

These finds show just how important Monasterevin was as a fording point. It is believed that the Neolithic travelers would have sacrificed these valuable axe heads to the spirit of the Barrow. For many years Monasterevin was just the sleepy rural town that you passed through on the main road from Dublin to Limerick, until in 2004 the town was bypassed with the construction of the M& motorway, which took large volumes of traffic and passing trade out of the town. What many don’t realize is that the town has a rich and eventful history that spans from the Neolithic right up to modern day. With tales of Neolithic crossroads, Bronze Age antiquities, Early Christian Settlements, Rebellion and industrial innovation, Monasterevin is a far cry from the sleepy rural town many think it to be. Evidence of several earthwork enclosures dating from the Bronze Age (2500–500 BC) suggests that there were a number of small farmers in the area during this period. One such earthwork which still exists at the top of the town where the river Figile meets the Barrow is known as the Aquafort.

Left: Drawbridge 1977 – Top Right: Moore Abbey from across the Barrow – Bottom right: Market Square
Images courtesy of Monasterevin Heritage

8 Draw BridgeDrawbridge 2013
© Ed Mooney Photography

The Age of hero’s

During its use the water levels are believed to have been far higher than today, which would have made it far harder to attack. This was the beginning of the age of hero’s in Ireland, where many famous Kings, Warriors, Druids and Bards inhabited a magical land. By the arrival of the Iron age (500 BC – 400 AD) the bog land which surrounds the town had been fully formed and fortified settlement of the area continued. Although travelling through the area was difficult, the importance of a ford on the Barrow meant that this problem would be overcome. Eventually the equivalent of an ancient motorway was constructed through the bog land. Known as the ‘Danes Road’, and constructed by placing large planks of wood on top of a foundation of brushwood. The base layer of brushwood evenly spread out the weight of the large planks, thus providing a stable platform for crossing the bog lands. Not bad for an ancient race of people whom many would consider to be far inferior to ourselves with our modern science and technology. This way of building roads was in fact so good that it was used by chariots. St. Brigid is said to have ordered the construction of a similar road. Also during this period we have what became known as the Monasterevin Type Disc’s. Said to date from 1st or 2nd century A.D. These Bronze disc’s which were unique to Ireland. Out of the several discs in existence only two were found in the Monasterevin area. The reason they are referred to as Monasterevin Type is because there is no record of where the other five were found. Little is known about these discs and most documentation only accounts for how they were made.

Left: Bell Harbour & Crow Bridge – Right: Barge passing under the Drawbridge

Images courtesy of Monasterevin Heritage

Left: River Barrow – Right: Bell Harbour now

Images courtesy of © Ed Mooney Photography

“Tripartite life of St. Patrick”

With the arrival of Christianity in Ireland circa (300-400AD) many change occurred all across Ireland. The ancient ways were absorbed into the new religion and a new culture took over. St Evin, from which Monasterevin takes its name, established his monastery here in the 6th century, on the banks of the Barrow after serving some time at Rosglas. Evin was said to have a good political mind and was responsible for achieving special status for Monasterevin which placed the area outside common law, in effect making it a place of sanctuary. His famous bell was said to have been used for swearing oaths and was much in demand by tribes of the region for guaranteeing peace treaties. St. Evin is also said to have had a hand in the writing of the “Tripartite life of St. Patrick”. Other writing by Evin survives including the “Cain Emhin”. The monastery is said to have died out by the time the Vikings began their raids in Ireland, but the importance of the site continued. In 903 AD the battle of Ballaghmoon was fought for the ownership of the church of Evin. It would be almost 500 years later before another major religious establishment would occupy the site of Evins monastery. This time it was a Cistercian Abbey founded by Diarmuid O Dempsey. O’Dempsey was the head of the clan whom controlled much of the surrounding area during the 12th century. During this time the importance of Monasterevin as a crossing point on the Barrow came into play.

Left: The Marquis of Drogheda – Top right: Rent Book from 1837 – Bottom right: Entrance to Moore Abbey

Images courtesy of Monasterevin Heritage

16 Railway BridgeRailway Bridge

Image courtesy of © Ed Mooney Photography

Crossing the bridge one final time

With the O’Mores to the west and the Norman Earls of Kildare in the east, Monasterevin ended up in the middle of a power struggle between the two opposing sides. The Abbots at Monasterevin whom held a seat in Parliament had to play a dangerous game of politics, whilst assisting the native clans in their fight against the English crown. By 1541 the Abbey was handed over to Henry VIII during the suppression of the monasteries. As was the case with many similar sites Henry would lease them to his Nobles. During the Elizabethan period there were several occupants including Sir Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex after whom Essex Bridge is named. Also known as the Pass Bridge after he passed over it on his way to a failed campaign against the native Irish clans in Munster. Nobody can be certain if this was the last time he used the bridge but some believe that he crossed the bridge one final time on his way back to England for a date with the headsman’s block at the Tower of London. In 1613 Sir Adam Loftus whom later became Lord Chancellor of Ireland in 1619, was granted the Abbey and Demesne at Monasterevin, which in turn passed on to the Earls of Drogheda after they married into the Loftus family. It was the fourth Earl whom sold their estates at Mellifont and moved the family seat to Monasterevin.

To be continued…………..

“Venice of Ireland” comes to “Life in Russia” Life in Russia has a very special guest blogger today. He is the Ruin Hunter of Ireland…

Thoughts of an Expat – Purity

Purity To the lips of a starving woman my mind wanders yet my it’s my heart that keeps me asunder…

Famous Russian Quotes – In Old Russia

Painting by: Vladimir Zhdanov “But clouds bellied out in the sultry heat, the sky cracked open with a crimson gash, spewed flame-and the ancient forest began to smoke.


I had no idea what a box of worms I was opening when I started this post. It was going to be a simple post about how the Russians and Americans came up with this harebrained idea of sticking jet engines on a train. I wasn’t prepared to find out that Europe had also found it’s way into this mixed bag of locomotive or should I say totally “loco” means of transportation. Who would have know that the Germans would come up with a Zeppelin train and to boot they did this in 1929? Appropriately they named it the Schienenzeppelin, Scotty beam me up?

Then as I dig a little deeper I find the french are in on this too. And like all things french, their versions are  racy and a bit on the sexy side. Without spoiling to many of the details the Aérotrain 01 was born in 1965 and had average speed of 200km/h. The Aérotrain 02 was the 01 with the reactor Fouga Magister and booster rockets to boot. Seriously the second one reminded me of some out of a Johnny Qwest cartoon. Can’t you just imagine Johnny, Hadji, and Bandit running to this “thing” in one of the episodes. For more more info on these two birds go to Vadrouille BeBrouille’s Blog. See link below.

Next up in this jet packed adventure, no pun intended were the two that I started out with. It seems that both the Americans and the Russians decided to have a train race. The Americans started it (sound familiar) and the Russians jumped aboard with their version. I could again go into a lot of detail here but it would be a long and boring post. So lets just say like all the other intelligent schemes this one landed in the graveyard. Interestingly enough the American version was supposed to designed to attain speeds of 1000 mph, it’s top speed never exceeded 184 mph, oh well. On the other hand the Russians wound up reaching 160 mph with their jet-packed model, it’s believed it could have reached 180 mph.

PUBLISHED by catsmob.com

This next one is personally my favorite, it’s kinda classy, nice lines, really just a plane without wings. This little engine that couldn’t, debuted in 1970. This was the Russian Jet powered monorail train – SVL (Russian abbreviation of high-speed laboratory car). During the tests SVL gained a top speed around 180 mph. For some unknown reason after the tests had been completed the project was canceled and that was the end of its life. Thinking about it, seating in the cabin and hearing this screaming jet engine behind me would be a bit un-nerving. Today its rusty fragments still can be found on  the grounds of Kalininsky factory. 


Finally, I thought I’d finish this post with a tried and proven method of locomotion. Only problem here is Camel Sh_t.






Aerotrains, Monorail Trains, and what the heck? I had no idea what a box of worms I was opening when I started this post.

Vintage Russian Race Cars - GAZ-GL1

Vintage Russian Race Cars – GAZ-GL1



Although this isn’t the original model it’s a darn good replica of the GAZ-GL1. This beautiful race car was designed by Evgenie Agitov before WWII. It was built in the Gaza plant in 1938 , based on components from a GAZ M-1. This version was produced between 1936 and 1942 based on the 1933 FordV8.  The engine installed in model was boosted another 15 hp over the 50 hp the car already…

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The Ivanov Experiments - Part II

The Ivanov Experiments – Part II


Zeedonk pulling a wagon

In November, Ivanov returned to Guinea, captured his chimps and with considerable difficulty eventually inseminated three of them. By now, he had a second experiment in mind: to inseminate women with chimp sperm. Knowing that no local woman would agree, he planned to do this under the pretext of a medical examination, but the French governor forbade it.


Abkhazia railway…

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Vintage Russian Race Cars - GAZ-A-Sport

Vintage Russian Race Cars – GAZ-A-Sport

tumblr_md6319itJX1r3sn0vo1_1280Serial GAS-A-Sport design, AI Girelya. 1937 GAZ-A-Sport

The sports cars of the time came from production models that were put together by amateur athletes in a makeshift manner built from their own hands.  When preparing vehicles for competition they would build a streamlined body over the GAZ-A or GAZ-M1 platform. Then moderate adjustments of the engine, carburetors, and shortening the exhaust…

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The Ivanov Experiments - Part I

The Ivanov Experiments – Part I

Ivannov experiments

Ilia Ivanov

In February 1926, Russian biologist Ilia Ivanov set out for Guinea in French West Africa, where he planned to perform one of the world’s most sensational experiments. Ivanov was an expert in artificial insemination and had used his ground-breaking methods to create an assortment of hybrid animals. Now he was going to try something even more radical – crossing an ape and a human. His…

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Vintage Russian Race Cars – GAZ-A Aero

GAZ-A Aero In the post-revolutionary Russia there was no place avtomotosportu. The famous Russo-Balt S24/55 disappeared (the donkey in a private collection, was tragically killed in troubled years, went under the knife or the Bolsheviks as a relic of imperialism - an open question), and new sports cars do not fit into the five-year program.

Pskov, Russia


I’m always rewarded when I find a new blog about expat in Russia. This one is no different. Have fun reading the story.

Originally posted on ships are for sailing:

Feeling restless I decided it was time for a new journey. I haven’t seen many other Russian cities yet and I didn’t have much time so I decided to go somewhere nearby. Pskov is a 4 hour bus ride away and a cheap trip – an…

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Photos of “Enchanted Horizons” (Part II)

Photos of “Enchanted Horizons” (Part II)


I’ve been doing a lot of posts about Central Asia, showing the landscapes the history and more. Today I found a great blog about Kazakhstan, it’s well worth visiting and learning more about this fantastic country.

Originally posted on Kazakhnomad’s Blog: A Westerner’s View of Kazakhstan:

YesterdayI featured the photographer V. Yokushkin and today I’ll show four more of his photos from…

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In a Peaceful plea to the Tzar

In St. Petersburg, Russia on January 22, 1905 a peaceful protest was organized and led by Father Gapon that was heading towards the winter palace of Tzar Nicholas II. I think it’s important to show that this was being done in the middle of the winter. This was a period after the war with Japan (to which they lost), they were protesting the horrific working conditions in their workplaces, it was in a time of an economic slump, the people wanted the help from Nicholas which they considered “Little Father”. They had gathered together on that cold morning to plead with their king.They had no intent in making any kind of political protest in the sense of calling for the overthrow of the government or royal family. The petition they carried clearly shows that they wanted Nicholas to help them. Up until this point many times the people had gone before the Tzar in asking for help, in most cases he supported the people and reform was made.

This day they carried a petition that stated:

“Oh Sire, we working men and inhabitants of St. Petersburg, our wives, our children and our parents, helpless and aged women and men, have come to You our ruler, in search of justice and protection. We are beggars, we are oppressed and overburdened with work, we are insulted, we are not looked on as human beings but as slaves. The moment has come for us when death would be better than the prolongation of our intolerable sufferings.
We are seeking here our last salvation. Do not refuse to help Your people. Destroy the wall between Yourself and Your people.”

1905 Uprising

Inspired by the Union of Liberation

Dressed in their Sunday best, with the women and children at the front (upon reflection many young men were put to the front), the marchers carried icons, crosses or pictures of the Tzar, but no weapons of any kind. The religious procession moved forward singing hymns the less optimistic of them understood that they might be martyred. The reasons for this march, they were asking for the working day to be cut to eight hours, for the right to strike and for the election of a constituent assembly by secret ballot and universal suffrage. All of which was in the body of their petition, inspired by the Union of Liberation. They never reached the Winter Palace, Nicholas not understanding the gravity of the situation was not in residence at the time. He had taken his family and had gone off to the countryside for a rest.

As several thousand workers approached the Winter Palace, officers called out the palace’s security garrison to guard its entry points. The guards themselves were quite nervous about facing such a large gathering of  people. It has never been clear if the first shot was out of nervousness or an officer called out the order to shot.  Once the shooting was over government sources declared that 96 souls had been killed, eyewitnesses believed the number was closer to 200, while other reports and propaganda from revolutionary groups claimed even higher figures.

So what gave rise to this massacre

In the late 1800s there was a boom in industrial growth that had been supported by the tsarist government economic stimulus program. The problem with the program was a lack of legislative and regulatory controls that protected the labors. Because of these lack of labor laws and extremely low wages the workers of Russia were being exploited not only by there own people but also by foreign investors as well. Those who were working the the Industrial sector labored under appalling conditions. The average work day at the time was 10.5 hours, six days a week, but it was common for them to work up to 15 hours per day. Annual holidays, sick leave and superannuation just didn’t exist. Under these conditions it was commonplace for accidents, illnesses, injuries to happen, when they did the workers were summarily dismissed without sick leave, or any kind of compensation what so ever. Then to add insult to injury Factory owners imposed arbitrary fines for singing while working, failing to meet production quota, being tardy to work and the list goes on. The workers themselves lived in over crowded tenements or run down sheds owned by their employers. The construction of these quarters lacked adequate heating, water or even sewage facilities. The whole situation was just over appalling.

The results of the shooting

All through Russia the news spread quickly about what had happened. In the same way strikes occurred involving around 400,000 workers. Factory owners and landlords homes were attacked by peasants even the Grand Duke an uncle of the tzar was assassinated as a result of what had happened. The transportation system of Russia also came to a grinding halt. It seemed at any point Russia just might implode. Then to add more woes to this ever growing problem it became clear that Russia had lost the Russo-Japanese War. The war that was to gain the favor of the people to the tzar wound up having the opposite effect.

While the events of 1905 had little effect at the time, the victims of the massacre were remembered in the years that followed. On January 9th 1917, the Bolsheviks organized a mass strike to remember Bloody Sunday as it had become known. As January passed, the strikes had become more organized and more widespread to the point where cities began to grind to a halt. In St Petersburg, Russia’s capital at the time, there were mass walkouts across the city. Even the police went on strike
When the police joined in the strikes it really was the end. The Duma collapsed and on 15 March 1917 the Tzar abdicated, leaving a provisional government to run the country. This government, led by Alexander Kerensky met a great deal of opposition and unrest grew which in turn led to the October revolution.
This is the point where Lenin and Stalin returned from their respective exiles and made their marks on Russia. Lenin’s was the greater influence as he returned to lead the Communist Bolsheviks who voted in early October to rise up against the provisional government and take power.
Lenin succeeded in capturing the key cities in Russia, and the country collapsed into a four year civil war in which the Communists were ultimately victorious. The Royal Family were arrested and shot to prevent them being freed by the White Armies and therefore this removed the risk of them ever

What does it mean to America

So the question remains “What does it mean to America? Right? Lets take a look at modern history in America so hopefully the picture I’m going to paint will be understood. What is one of the forefront of most people minds when it comes to the news? What comes to me is the incident in Ferguson.  In of itself Ferguson doesn’t seem all that important, but when we look at it in the context of history I believe it will be important. But like all good things you must wait…………

Part II coming soon.

Bloody Sunday – What does it mean to America? In a Peaceful plea to the Tzar In St. Petersburg, Russia on January 22, 1905 a peaceful protest was organized and led by Father Gapon that was heading towards the winter palace of Tzar Nicholas II.

Thoughts of an Expat - The heart of Man

Thoughts of an Expat – The heart of Man

breaking_bad_money_0 The heart of man, can only be changed, by the Spirit of God

To truly understand this follow the link below.

Picture source: http://www.denofgeek.com/tv/breaking-bad/28051/breaking-bad-capitalism-and-spiritual-bankruptcy

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Thoughts of an Expat – Moral Bankruptcy

Moral Bankruptcy is not a condition of the mind, but of the heart